CLC section - Overview

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[ Wang-Rgheff-2003 (doi) .]

Q. Wang, M.A.A.Rgheff
“ Cross-Layer Signalling for Next-Generation Wireless Systems ”,
"Proceedings of the 2003 international conference on Wireless communications and mobile computing", 2003

ResiliNets Keywords: ' direct cross-layer signaling

Abstract: "Cross-layer design is becoming a popular design methodology for the IP-based next-generation wireless systems, and cross-layer signalling is a key enabler of such a methodology. Several methods are emerging to achieve this signalling in layered protocol stacks. Through these methods, the refined wireless systems are expected to gain significant performance improvement and/or obtain extended functionality that is very hard if not impossible to obtain from a single layer signalling. This paper begins with a survey of representative cross-layer signalling methods. Based on the analysis, the paper proposes an efficient, flexible and comprehensive scheme defined here as Cross-LAyer Signalling Shortcuts (CLASS), and then a set of evaluation criteria is defined to compare CLASS with current schemes. Finally, the possible application areas of CLASS are identified, and a reference application programme is presented for applying CLASS into various management areas. "


[ Raisinghani-Iyer-2004 .]

V. T. Raisinghani , S. Iyer
“ Cross-Layer Design Optimizations in Wireless Protocol Stacks ”,
"Computer Communications", vol. 27, #8, May 2004, pp. 720-724

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer control, cross-layer interactions, scenarios

Abstract: "The performance of applications on mobile devices is affected by the device constraints of memory, processing power, battery life and the variations in the wireless network. The variations in the wireless network will be compounded in the next generation networks—3G and beyond—when the devices move across heterogeneous networks. To allow interoperability with the Internet, existing standard protocol stacks would be deployed in the new networks and mobile devices. However, these protocol stacks which are architected and implemented in a layered manner do not function efficiently in mobile wireless environments. Cross-layer feedback in the protocol stack would be useful to improve the efficiency of these protocol stacks. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of cross-layer feedback on the mobile device and present a representative survey."


[ Wang-Li-Low-Doyle-2005 (doi) .]

Jiantao Wang, Lun Li, S.H. Low, J.C. Doyle,
“ Cross-layer optimization in TCP/IP networks ”,
"IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking", vol. 13, #3, Jun 2005, pp. 582- 595

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer optimization, congestion control, routing, congestion price

Abstract: "TCP-AQM can be interpreted as distributed primal-dual algorithms to maximize aggregate utility over source rates. We show that an equilibrium of TCP/IP, if exists, maximizes aggregate utility over both source rates and routes, provided congestion prices are used as link costs. An equilibrium exists if and only if this utility maximization problem and its Lagrangian dual have no duality gap. In this case, TCP/IP incurs no penalty in not splitting traffic across multiple paths. Such an equilibrium, however, can be unstable. It can be stabilized by adding a static component to link cost, but at the expense of a reduced utility in equilibrium. If link capacities are optimally provisioned, however, pure static routing, which is necessarily stable, is sufficient to maximize utility. Moreover single-path routing again achieves the same utility as multipath routing at optimality."


[Raisinghani-Iyer-2006(doi) .]

V.T. Raisinghani, S. Iyer
“ Cross-Layer Feedback Architecture for Mobile Device Protocol Stacks ”,
"Communications Magazine, IEEE", vol.44, #1, Januar 2006, pp. 85- 92

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer feedback design, exploiting data structures of protocols

Abstract: "Applications using traditional protocol stacks (e.g., TCP/IP) from wired networks do not function efficiently in mobile wireless environments. This is primarily due to the layered architecture and implementation of protocol stacks. One mechanism to improve the efficiency of the stack is cross-layer feedback, that is, making information from within one layer available to another layer of the stack. For example, TCP retransmissions can be reduced by making it aware of network disconnections or handoff events. We highlight the need for a cross-layer feedback architecture and identify key design goals for an architecture. We present our ECLAIR architecture, which satisfies these design goals. We describe a prototype implementation that validates ECLAIR. We also discuss other cross-layer architectures and provide a cross-layer design guide."


[Kliazovich-Granelli-Fonseca-2009 .]

D. Kliazovich, F. Granelli, N. L. S. Da Fonseca
“ Architectures and Cross-Layer Design for Cognitive Networks ”,
"Handbook on Sensor Networks - chapter 1", 2009

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer design, cognitive networks

Abstract: "Network evolution towards self-aware autonomous adaptive networking attempts to overcome the inefficiency of configuring and managing networks, which leads to performance degradation. In order to optimize network operations, the introduction of self-awareness, self-management, and self- healing into the network was proposed. This created a new paradigm in networking, known as cognitive networking. This chapter describes state-of-the-art, as well as future directions in cognitive networking. Fundamental techniques for enabling cognitive properties, such as, adaptation, learning, and goal optimization processes are detailed in this text. A comparison of available research proposals leads to the design of a promising cognitive network architecture capable of incorporating cognitive network techniques. Finally, a discussion on the required properties of the cross-layer design for cognitive networks and deployment issues are specified. "


[Razzaque-Dobson-Nixon-2007 (doi) .]

M.A. Razzaque, S. Dobson, P.Nixon
“ Context Awareness through Cross-Layer Network Architecture ”,
"Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks", August 2007, pp. 1076-1081

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer design, autonomic networks, context awareness

Abstract: "Layered architectures are not sufficiently flexible to cope with the dynamics of wireless-dominated next generation communications. Cross-layer approaches may provide a better solution: allowing interactions between two or more non-adjacent layers in the protocol stack. Cross-layer architectures based on purely local information will not be able to support system-wide cross-layer performance optimization, context-awareness, etc. A new cross-layer architecture which provides a hybrid local and global view, using gossiping to maintain consistency has been proposed in [1]. This paper studies the possibilities of context-awareness in communications through this architecture by two examples. The first example uses user-centric context to control the available link-bandwidth and satisfy user accordingly. The second uses contextual information to control the transmission power of a mobile node."


[Winter-Schiller-Nikaein-Bonnet-2006 (doi) .]

R.Winter, J.H.Schiller, N.Nikaein, Ch. Bonnet
“ CrossTalk: Cross-Layer Decision Support Based on Global Knowledge ”,
"IEEE Communications Magazine", vol.44, #1, January 2006, pp. 93- 99

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer control, local/global view

Abstract: "The dynamic nature of ad hoc networks makes system design a challenging task. Mobile ad hoc networks suffer from severe performance problems due to the shared, interference-prone, and unreliable medium. Routes can be unstable due to mobility and energy can be a limiting fac- tor for typical devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, and sensor nodes. In such environments cross-layer architectures are a promising new approach, as they can adapt protocol behavior to changing networking conditions. This article introduces CrossTalk, a cross-layer architecture that aims at achieving global objectives with local behavior. It further compares CrossTalk with other cross-layer architectures proposed. Finally, it analyzes the quality of the information provided by the architecture and presents a ref- erence application to demonstrate the effective- ness of the general approach. "


[Aune-2004] .]

F.Aune
“ Cross-layer design tutorial ”,
"Norwegian University of Science and Technology", November 2004

ResiliNets Keywords: ' cross-layer control, stability, evolution-friendly

Abstract: "Cross-Layer Design has recently become the new hype in wireless communi- cation systems. This tutorial is to examine the current research activities in the area of Cross-Layer Design. The evolutionary and revolutionary approach to the Cross-Layer Design principle are studied. Examples such a 4G Mobile Broadband Wireless Access system and system-wide Cross-Layer Design en- abled network stack are shown in the evolutionary approach; whereas Wireless Sensor Networks was discussed in the revolutionary approach case. Like any other new trend in science and engineering, preliminary precaution should al- ways be exercised. Skeptisms regarding Cross-Layer Design were also included. In conclusion, Cross-Layer Design has a great potential in future wireless com- minication systems."


[Demeester-1999 (doi) .]

P.Demeester,M.Gryseels, A.Autenrieth,C.Brianza,L.Castagna,G.Signoverlli,R.Clemente, M.Ravera,A.Jajszczyk, D.Janukowicz,K.V.Doorselaere,Y.Harada
“Resilience in Multilayer Networks ”,
"IEEE Communications Magazine", August 1999

ResiliNets Keywords: multilayer resilience, recovery mechanisms

Abstract: "The integration of different technologies such as ATM, SDH, and WDM in multilayer transport networks raises many questions regarding the coordination of the individual network layers. Especially in the area of net- work survivability, much can be gained by a better alignment of the healing actions taken by different network layers in case of outages. Survivability issues encountered in a multi- layer environment include, among others: how to identify the original failure cause, how to appoint for each failure a layer responsible for its healing, how to let different layers interwork, and how to provide spare resources in an efficient way."


[Liu-Tipper-2002 .]

Yu Liu , David Tipper
“Multilayer network survivability models and application ”,
"Sixth INFORMS Telecommunications Conference", March, 2002

ResiliNets Keywords: multilayer resilience, survivability

Abstract: "this paper, we extends the spare provision matrix (SPM) method and successive survivable routing (SSR) to formulate two problems on multi-layer network survivability. First issue is the survivable virtual topology layout problem. we give a matrix-based model based on Modiano and Narula-Tam's recent work [18]. A layout information matrix captures the logical topology layout over its lower layer network. Then the model to minimum cost of building a fault tolerant upper layer topology on top of a lower layer physical network is given. This upper layer topology is fault tolerant of both upper and lower layer failure scenarios in addition to single link failures"


[ Balasubramaniam-Botvich-Donnelly-Agoulmine-2007 (doi) .]

Balasubramaniam, S. Botvich, D. Donnelly, W. Agoulmine, N.
“A multi-layered approach towards achieving survivability in autonomic network”,
"IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications and Malaysia International Conference on Communications", May 2007, pp. 360-365

ResiliNets Keywords: multilayer resilience, survivability, autonomic networks

Abstract: "Traditional network management technique that was largely controlled by humans is nowadays less and less feasible due to the increase complexities of current communication environment. This evolutionary change has led towards the requirement of autonomic network management. In this paper we propose a multi-layered autonomic network management architecture that incorporates various operators into a hierarchical structure. In particular we apply our architecture towards network survivability using a hierarchical Policy Based Management System. The paper also presents a review of current mechanisms used for network survivability."


[Hager-Shyy-Ma-2008 .]

C. Hager, D. J. Shyy, J. Ma
“ Cooperative Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Networks ”,
"JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS", vol.3, #4, September 2008

ResiliNets Keywords: cross-layer control, cooperation

Abstract: "Cross-layer optimization is an effective mechanism to improve wireless network performance and efficiency. Although cross-layer optimization is not a new technique, it can be applied effectively to different wireless technologies to handle different problems while still conforming to the wireless standards. Utility functions are constructed from measurements of the different OSI layers to provide input into our Cross-Layer Optimization Engine (CLOE). ZigBee technology was chosen as the test platform to demonstrate our proposed mechanism. Experiments were performed in simulated and live environments. Various mobility scenarios allowed observation of ZigBee devices with default operations and with CLOE. Our results show that CLOE can provide ZigBee with significant energy savings. "


[Lin-Shroff-Srikant-2006 (doi) .]

X. Lin, N. B. Shroff, R. Srikant
“ A tutorial on cross-layer optimization in wireless networks ”,
"IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications on ``Non-Linear Optimization of Communication Systems", vol.24, #8, June 2006

ResiliNets Keywords: cross-layer optimization, resource allocation

Abstract: "This tutorial paper overviews recent developments in optimization-based approaches for resource allocation problems in wireless systems. We begin by overviewing important results in the area of opportunistic (channel-aware) scheduling for cellular (single-hop) networks, where easily implementable myopic policies are shown to optimize system performance. We then describe key lessons learned and the main obstacles in extending the work to general resource allocation problems for multihop wireless networks. Towards this end, we show that a clean-slate optimization-based approach to the multihop resource allocation problem naturally results in a “loosely coupled” cross-layer solution. That is, the algorithms obtained map to different layers [transport, network, and medium access control/physical (MAC/PHY)] of the protocol stack, and are coupled through a limited amount of information being passed back and forth. It turns out that the optimal scheduling component at the MAC layer is very complex, and thus needs simpler (potentially imperfect) distributed solutions. We demonstrate how to use imperfect scheduling in the cross-layer framework and describe recently developed distributed algorithms along these lines. We conclude by describing a set of open research problems. "


[ Chen-Low-Chiang-Doyle-2006 (doi) .]

Lijun Chen , Stevenh Low , Mung Chiang , John C. Doyle
“ Cross-Layer Congestion Control, Routing and Scheduling Design in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks ”,
"INFOCOM 2006. 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications. Proceedings", 2006, pp.1-13

ResiliNets Keywords: cross-layer congestion control, routing, scheduling

Abstract: "This paper considers jointly optimal design of crosslayer congestion control, routing and scheduling for ad hoc wireless networks. We first formulate the rate constraint and scheduling constraint using multicommodity flow variables, and formulate resource allocation in networks with fixed wireless channels (or single-rate wireless devices that can mask channel variations) as a utility maximization problem with these constraints. By dual decomposition, the resource allocation problem naturally decomposes into three subproblems: congestion control, routing and scheduling that interact through congestion price. The global convergence property of this algorithm is proved. We next extend the dual algorithm to handle networks with timevarying channels and adaptive multi-rate devices. The stability of the resulting system is established, and its performance is characterized with respect to an ideal reference system which has the best feasible rate region at link layer. We then generalize the aforementioned results to a general model of queueing network served by a set of interdependent parallel servers with time-varying service capabilities, which models many design problems in communication networks. We show that for a general convex optimization problem where a subset of variables lie in a polytope and the rest in a convex set, the dual-based algorithm remains stable and optimal when the constraint set is modulated by an irreducible finite-state Markov chain. This paper thus presents a step toward a systematic way to carry out cross-layer design in the framework of “layering as optimization decomposition ” for time-varying channel models. I. "


[ Low-Paganini-Doyle-2001 .]

Steven H. Low , Fernando Paganini , John C. Doyle
“ Internet congestion control ”,
"IEEE Control Systems Magazine", 2001

ResiliNets Keywords: congestion control

Abstract: "This article reviews the current TCP congestion control protocols and overviews recent advances that have brought analytical tools to this problem. We describe an optimization-based framework that provides an interpretation of various flow control mechanisms, in particular, the utility being optimized by the protocol's equilibrium structure. We also look at the dynamics of TCP and employ linear models to exhibit stability limitations in the predominant TCP versions, despite certain built-in compensations for delay. Finally, we present a new protocol that overcomes these limitations and provides stability in a way that is scalable to arbitrary networks, link capacities, and delays."


[ Smith-Hanemann-Freisleben-2005 (doi).]

M.Smith, S.Hanemann, B. Freisleben
“ Coupled simulation/emulation for cross-layer enabled mobile wireless computing ”,
"Second International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems", December 2005, pp. 9

ResiliNets Keywords:

Abstract: "Embedded and ubiquitous computing applications using mobile nodes and wireless communication present a number of challenging issues to developers. They must deal with their primary application goal as well as network related issues, such as quality of service demands, varying network density or energy conservation requirements. To simplify system development, traditional communication software design separates these concerns into several layers. When dealing with small, energy and computational constrained devices, this layered approach hides valuable information which can be used to adapt to the changing requirements of embedded and ubiquitous computing applications. By exposing cross-layer information and enabling interaction between the layers, cross-layer design can offer substantial benefits to the application. In this paper, we propose a method for coupling multiple simulators and emulators to allow easy development and testing of solutions which span multiple layers, enabling application and communication software to be designed and tested in a realistic unified environment. To illustrate our approach to cross-layer application development, we present an application example which utilize cross-layer communication to adapt to its current surrounding."


[ Dijkstra-1974 (doi) .]

E. W. Dijkstra
“Self-stabilizing Systems in Spite of Distributed Control ”,
"Communication of the ACM", vol.17, #11, November 1974, pp. 643-644

ResiliNets Keywords: cross-layer control, stability

Abstract: ""


[Manner-Fu-2005 .]

J. Manner, X. Fu
“ Analysis of Existing Quality-of-Service Signaling Protocols ”,
"Internet Engineering Task Force, Request for Comments (RFC) 4094 ", May 2005

ResiliNets Keywords: ' signaling, Qos

Abstract: "This document reviews some of the existing Quality of Service signaling protocols for an IP network. The goal here is to learn from them and to avoid common misconceptions. Further, we need to avoid mistakes during the design and implementation of any new protocol in this area."

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